Boykin et al (2019) also used the Oxford Nanopore MinION, in their case, to identify cassava DNA viruses on farms in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya, allowing farmers, researchers and development actors to take early, corrective action based on the rapid diagnosis of plants. Nanopore sequencing produced results in situ within three hours and with a cost per sample was reported to be less than USD 50. The authors contrast this to the conventional method (sending a sample for analysis in a lab in Tanzania) which costs USD 400 per sample and takes around 6 months. One interesting observation in the paper, which could be applicable to the proposed project, is that a major barrier to in situ genomics has been the lack of a simple, quick and effective method to extract DNA from a sample. The authors present MicroGEM's PDQeX Nucleic Acid Extractor as a solution.