Raspbery Pi SSD setup
SSD + SATA-USB3 adapter cable *
Or use an m.2 SSD + USB3 nvme SSD adapter
Flash raspbian to your SSD, the same as you would flash it to your microSD, plug it in and go.
In most cases, the default 32-bit raspberry pi OS is ok, but if you have a pi4 or later, then 64-bit raspberry pi OS is generally faster and worth potentially reduced functionality and stability.
* Certain SATA USB3 adapters are not compatible or are poorly compatible with raspberry pi, so check before you buy with the list in the guide below
This raspberry pi usb boot guide is very technical and detailed, covering a bunch of things you don't need to do, but also some details that might be helpful.